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本节引言:


Drawable资源使用注意事项

好的,要注意的地方大概就这些,下面我们来对Android中给我们提供的13种Drawable进行学习!


1.ColorDrawable

1).Java中定义ColorDrawable:

ColorDrawable drawable = new ColorDrawable(0xffff2200);  
txtShow.setBackground(drawable);  

2).在xml中定义ColorDrawable:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  
<color  
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"  
    android:color="#FF0000"/>  

当然上面这些用法,其实用得不多,更多的时候我们是在res/values目录下创建一个color.xml 文件,然后把要用到的颜色值写到里面,需要的时候通过@color获得相应的值,比如:

3).建立一个color.xml文件

比如:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  
<resources>  
    <color name="material_grey_100">#fff5f5f5</color>
    <color name="material_grey_300">#ffe0e0e0</color>
    <color name="material_grey_50">#fffafafa</color>
    <color name="material_grey_600">#ff757575</color>
    <color name="material_grey_800">#ff424242</color>
    <color name="material_grey_850">#ff303030</color>
    <color name="material_grey_900">#ff212121</color>
</resources>

然后如果是在xml文件中话我们可以通过@color/xxx获得对应的color值 如果是在Java中:

int mycolor = getResources().getColor(R.color.mycolor);    
btn.setBackgroundColor(mycolor);  

ps:另外有一点要注意,如果我们在Java中直接定义颜色值的话,要加上0x,而且不能把透明度漏掉:

int mycolor = 0xff123456;    
btn.setBackgroundColor(mycolor); 

4).使用系统定义好的color:

比如:BLACK(黑色),BLUE(蓝色),CYAN(青色),GRAY(灰色),GREEN(绿色),RED(红色),WRITE(白色),YELLOW(黄色)! 用法: btn.setBackgroundColor(Color.BLUE); 也可以获得系统颜色再设置:

int getcolor = Resources.getSystem().getColor(android.R.color.holo_green_light);  
btn.setBackgroundColor(getcolor);  

xml中使用:android:background="@android:color/black"

5).利用静态方法argb来设置颜色:


2.NiewPatchDrawable

接着介绍两个没什么卵用的东东:

xml定义NinePatchDrawable:

<!--pic9.xml-->  
<!--参数依次为:引用的.9图片,是否对位图进行抖动处理-->  
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  
<nine-patch  
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"  
    android:src="@drawable/dule_pic"  
    android:dither="true"/>  

使用Bitmap包装.9图片:

<!--pic9.xml-->  
<!--参数依次为:引用的.9图片,是否对位图进行抖动处理-->  
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  
<bitmap  
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"  
    android:src="@drawable/dule_pic"  
    android:dither="true"/>

3.ShapeDrawable

使用示例: 2.3.1 TextView(文本框)详解


4.GradientDrawable

代码示例:(三种渐变效果的演示):

运行效果图

先在drawable下创建三个渐变xml文件:

(线性渐变)gradient_linear.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<shape
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:shape="oval" >
    <gradient
        android:angle="90"
        android:centerColor="#FFEB82"
        android:endColor="#35B2DE"
        android:startColor="#DEACAB" />

    <stroke
        android:dashGap="5dip"
        android:dashWidth="4dip"
        android:width="3dip"
        android:color="#fff" />
</shape>

(发散渐变)gradient_radial.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<shape xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:innerRadius="0dip"
    android:shape="ring"
    android:thickness="70dip"
    android:useLevel="false" >

    <gradient
        android:centerColor="#FFEB82"
        android:endColor="#35B2DE"
        android:gradientRadius="70"
        android:startColor="#DEACAB"
        android:type="radial"
        android:useLevel="false" />

</shape> 

(平铺渐变)gradient_sweep.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<shape xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:innerRadiusRatio="8"
    android:shape="ring"
    android:thicknessRatio="3"
    android:useLevel="false" >

    <gradient
        android:centerColor="#FFEB82"
        android:endColor="#35B2DE"
        android:startColor="#DEACAB"
        android:type="sweep"
        android:useLevel="false" />

</shape> 

调用三个drawable的activity_main.xml:

<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:orientation="vertical">

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/txtShow1"
        android:layout_width="200dp"
        android:layout_height="100dp"
        android:background="@drawable/gradient_linear" />

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/txtShow2"
        android:layout_width="200dp"
        android:layout_height="200dp"
        android:background="@drawable/gradient_radial" />

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/txtShow3"
        android:layout_width="100dp"
        android:layout_height="100dp"
        android:background="@drawable/gradient_sweep" />

</LinearLayout>  

好的,就是那么简单~当然,如果想绘制更加复杂的图形的话,只用xml文件不远远不足的, 更复杂的效果则需要通过Java代码来完成,下面演示的是摘自网上的一个源码:

运行效果图:

实现代码

MainActivity.java

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {
    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(new SampleView(this));
    }

    private static class SampleView extends View {
        private ShapeDrawable[] mDrawables;

        private static Shader makeSweep() {
            return new SweepGradient(150, 25,
                    new int[] { 0xFFFF0000, 0xFF00FF00, 0xFF0000FF, 0xFFFF0000 },
                    null);
        }

        private static Shader makeLinear() {
            return new LinearGradient(0, 0, 50, 50,
                    new int[] { 0xFFFF0000, 0xFF00FF00, 0xFF0000FF },
                    null, Shader.TileMode.MIRROR);
        }

        private static Shader makeTiling() {
            int[] pixels = new int[] { 0xFFFF0000, 0xFF00FF00, 0xFF0000FF, 0};
            Bitmap bm = Bitmap.createBitmap(pixels, 2, 2,
                    Bitmap.Config.ARGB_8888);

            return new BitmapShader(bm, Shader.TileMode.REPEAT,
                    Shader.TileMode.REPEAT);
        }

        private static class MyShapeDrawable extends ShapeDrawable {
            private Paint mStrokePaint = new Paint(Paint.ANTI_ALIAS_FLAG);

            public MyShapeDrawable(Shape s) {
                super(s);
                mStrokePaint.setStyle(Paint.Style.STROKE);
            }

            public Paint getStrokePaint() {
                return mStrokePaint;
            }

            @Override protected void onDraw(Shape s, Canvas c, Paint p) {
                s.draw(c, p);
                s.draw(c, mStrokePaint);
            }
        }

        public SampleView(Context context) {
            super(context);
            setFocusable(true);

            float[] outerR = new float[] { 12, 12, 12, 12, 0, 0, 0, 0 };
            RectF inset = new RectF(6, 6, 6, 6);
            float[] innerR = new float[] { 12, 12, 0, 0, 12, 12, 0, 0 };

            Path path = new Path();
            path.moveTo(50, 0);
            path.lineTo(0, 50);
            path.lineTo(50, 100);
            path.lineTo(100, 50);
            path.close();

            mDrawables = new ShapeDrawable[7];
            mDrawables[0] = new ShapeDrawable(new RectShape());
            mDrawables[1] = new ShapeDrawable(new OvalShape());
            mDrawables[2] = new ShapeDrawable(new RoundRectShape(outerR, null,
                    null));
            mDrawables[3] = new ShapeDrawable(new RoundRectShape(outerR, inset,
                    null));
            mDrawables[4] = new ShapeDrawable(new RoundRectShape(outerR, inset,
                    innerR));
            mDrawables[5] = new ShapeDrawable(new PathShape(path, 100, 100));
            mDrawables[6] = new MyShapeDrawable(new ArcShape(45, -270));

            mDrawables[0].getPaint().setColor(0xFFFF0000);
            mDrawables[1].getPaint().setColor(0xFF00FF00);
            mDrawables[2].getPaint().setColor(0xFF0000FF);
            mDrawables[3].getPaint().setShader(makeSweep());
            mDrawables[4].getPaint().setShader(makeLinear());
            mDrawables[5].getPaint().setShader(makeTiling());
            mDrawables[6].getPaint().setColor(0x88FF8844);

            PathEffect pe = new DiscretePathEffect(10, 4);
            PathEffect pe2 = new CornerPathEffect(4);
            mDrawables[3].getPaint().setPathEffect(
                    new ComposePathEffect(pe2, pe));

            MyShapeDrawable msd = (MyShapeDrawable)mDrawables[6];
            msd.getStrokePaint().setStrokeWidth(4);
        }

        @Override protected void onDraw(Canvas canvas) {

            int x = 10;
            int y = 10;
            int width = 400;
            int height = 100;

            for (Drawable dr : mDrawables) {
                dr.setBounds(x, y, x + width, y + height);
                dr.draw(canvas);
                y += height + 5;
            }
        }
    }
}

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